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Estimates of the change rate of solar mass and gravitational constant based on the dynamics of the Solar System

E. V. Pitjeva, N. P. Pitjev, D. A. Pavlov, C. C. Turygin

Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 647, A141 (2021)

DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039893

About the paper


The estimate of the change rate of the solar gravitational parameter d(GM⊙)∕dt is obtained from processing modern positional observations of planets and spacecraft. Observations were processed and parameters were determined basing on the numerical planetary ephemeris EPM2019. The obtained annual decrease in solar mass M⊙ accounts for the loss through radiation Ṁ⊙rad, through the outgoing solar wind Ṁ⊙wind, and for the material falling on the Sun Ṁ⊙fall. The estimated relative value is within ‒13.4×10^(−14) < (Ṁ⊙/Ṁ⊙)rad+wind+fall < ‒8.7×10^(−14) per year. The following range for the change rate of the gravitational constant G was obtained: ‒2.9 × 10^(−14) < Ġ∕G < + 4.6 × 10^(−14) per year (3σ). The new result reduces the interval for the change in G and narrows the limits of possible deviations for alternative gravitational theories from general relativity.