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The IAU 2000 Resolutions for Astrometry, Celestial Mechanics, and Metrology in the Relativistic Framework: Explanatory Supplement

M. Soffel, S. A. Klioner, G. Petit, P. Wolf, S. M. Kopeikin, P. Bretagnon, V. A. Brumberg, N. Capitaine, T. Damour, T. Fukushima, B. Guinot, T.-Y. Huang, L. Lindegren, C. Ma, K. Nordtvedt, J. C. Ries, P. K. Seidelmann, D. Vokrouhlický, C. M. Will, C. Xu

The Astronomical Journal, 126(6), 2687-2706 (2003)

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We discuss the IAU resolutions B1.3, B1.4, B1.5, and B1.9 that were adopted during the 24th General Assembly in Manchester, 2000, and provides details on and explanations for these resolutions. It is explained why they present significant progress over the corresponding IAU 1991 resolutions and why they are necessary in the light of present accuracies in astrometry, celestial mechanics, and metrology. In fact, most of these resolutions are consistent with astronomical models and software already in use. The metric tensors and gravitational potentials of both the Barycentric Celestial Reference System and the Geocentric Celestial Reference System are defined and discussed. The necessity and relevance of the two celestial reference systems are explained. The transformations of coordinates and gravitational potentials are discussed. Potential coefficients parameterizing the post-Newtonian gravitational potentials are expounded. Simplified versions of the time transformations suitable for modern clock accuracies are elucidated. Various approximations used in the resolutions are explicated and justified. Some models (e.g., for higher spin moments) that serve the purpose of estimating orders of magnitude have actually never been published before.