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Detecting the Oscillation and Propagation of the Nascent Dynamic Solar Wind Structure at 2.6 Solar Radii Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry Radio Telescopes

Maoli Ma, Guifré Molera Calvés, Giuseppe Cimò, Ming Xiong, Peijia Li, Jing Kong, Peijin Zhang, Jiansen He, Lijia Liu, Pradyumna Kummamuru, Chuanpeng Hou, Jasper Edwards, Qinghui Liu, Zhong Chen, Zhanghu Chu, De Wu, Xu Zhao, Zhichao Wang, Songtao Han, Quanquan Zhi, Yingkai Liu, Jonathan Quick, Javier González, Cristina García Miró, Mikhail Kharinov, Andrey Mikhailov, Alexander Neidhardt, Tiziana Venturi, Marco Morsiani, Giuseppe Maccaferri, Bo Xia, Hua Zhang, Longfei Hao

The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 940, n. 2, 32(10pp) (2022)

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Probing the solar corona is crucial to study the coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. However, the transient and inhomogeneous solar wind flows carry large-amplitude inherent Alfvén waves and turbulence, which make detection more difficult. We report the oscillation and propagation of the solar wind at 2.6 solar radii (Rs) by observation of China's Tianwen and ESA's Mars Express with radio telescopes. The observations were carried out on 2021 October 9, when one coronal mass ejection (CME) passed across the ray paths of the telescope beams. We obtain the frequency fluctuations (FFs) of the spacecraft signals from each individual telescope. First, we visually identify the drift of the frequency spikes at a high spatial resolution of thousands of kilometers along the projected baselines. They are used as traces to estimate the solar wind velocity. Then we perform the cross-correlation analysis on the time series of FF from different telescopes. The velocity variations of solar wind structure along radial and tangential directions during the CME passage are obtained. The oscillation of tangential velocity confirms the detection of a streamer wave. Moreover, at the tail of the CME, we detect the propagation of an accelerating fast field-aligned density structure indicating the presence of magnetohydrodynamic waves. This study confirms that the ground-station pairs are able to form particular spatial projection baselines with high resolution and sensitivity to study the detailed propagation of the nascent dynamic solar wind structure.