## Estimations of the change of the Sun's mass and the gravitation constant based on high-accuracy observations of planets and spacecraft

Transactions of IAA RAS, issue 26, 65–74 (2012)

**Keywords**:
gravitation constant, positional observation, Sun's mass

### Abstract

More than 635 000 positional observations of planets and spacecraft of different types have been used for estimating possible changes of the gravitation constant, the solar mass, and semi-major axes of planets. The analysis of the observations has been performed on the basis of the EPM2010 ephemerides of IAA RAS in post-newtonian approximation. The estimation of the change of the geliocentric gravitation constant GM has been obtained M /GM= (-5.0 4.1) 10 in year (3). The positive annual changes of semi-major axes /a have been determined simultaneously for the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn provided with high-accuracy sets of the observations, as expected if the geliocentric gravitation constant is decreasing in century wise. Taking into account the maximal limits of the possible MSun change it was found from the GM change obtained that the gravitation constant /G falls within the interval -4.210 < /G < +7.510 per year with 95 % probability.

### Citation

`E. Pitjeva, N. Pitjev. Estimations of the change of the Sun's mass and the gravitation constant based on high-accuracy observations of planets and spacecraft // Transactions of IAA RAS. — 2012. — Issue 26. — P. 65–74.`

```
@article{pitjeva2012,
abstract = {More than 635 000 positional observations of planets and spacecraft of different types have been used for estimating possible changes of the gravitation constant, the solar mass, and semi-major axes of planets. The analysis of the observations has been performed on the basis of the EPM2010 ephemerides of IAA RAS in post-newtonian approximation. The estimation of the change of the geliocentric gravitation constant GM has been obtained M /GM= (-5.0 4.1) 10 in year (3). The positive annual changes of semi-major axes /a have been determined simultaneously for the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn provided with high-accuracy sets of the observations, as expected if the geliocentric gravitation constant is decreasing in century wise. Taking into account the maximal limits of the possible MSun change it was found from the GM change obtained that the gravitation constant /G falls within the interval -4.210 < /G < +7.510 per year with 95 % probability.},
author = {E. Pitjeva and N. Pitjev},
issue = {26},
journal = {Transactions of IAA RAS},
keyword = {gravitation constant, positional observation, Sun's mass},
pages = {65--74},
title = {Estimations of the change of the Sun's mass and the gravitation constant based on high-accuracy observations of planets and spacecraft},
url = {http://iaaras.ru/en/library/paper/899/},
year = {2012}
}
```

```
TY - JOUR
TI - Estimations of the change of the Sun's mass and the gravitation constant based on high-accuracy observations of planets and spacecraft
AU - Pitjeva, E.
AU - Pitjev, N.
PY - 2012
T2 - Transactions of IAA RAS
IS - 26
SP - 65
AB - More than 635 000 positional observations of planets and spacecraft
of different types have been used for estimating possible changes of
the gravitation constant, the solar mass, and semi-major axes of
planets. The analysis of the observations has been performed on the
basis of the EPM2010 ephemerides of IAA RAS in post-newtonian
approximation. The estimation of the change of the geliocentric
gravitation constant GM has been obtained M /GM= (-5.0 4.1) 10 in
year (3). The positive annual changes of semi-major axes /a have been
determined simultaneously for the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn provided with high-accuracy sets of the observations,
as expected if the geliocentric gravitation constant is decreasing in
century wise. Taking into account the maximal limits of the possible
MSun change it was found from the GM change obtained that the
gravitation constant /G falls within the interval -4.210 < /G <
+7.510 per year with 95 % probability.
UR - http://iaaras.ru/en/library/paper/899/
ER -
```