Astronomical Yearbook for 2016
Preface
In the "Astronomical Yearbook" (AY) the ephemerides of the Sun, Moon, major planets and stars computed with the maximum precision in accordance with the resolutions approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) are published. The information is also given on various astronomical phenomena  lunar and solar eclipses, planetary configurations, rises and sets of the Sun and Moon, etc. The explanation, contained the examples, illustrates the possibility of the calculation of various ephemerides to any particular time and for the any observation place.
Since issue for 2004 the reform AY was carried out connected to change of ephemerical basis AY according to Recommendations XXIIIXXIV General assemblies (GA) IAU. In the course several years full replacement of theories of movement of major planets and the Moon, of the precessionnutation models, of the star catalogue is stage by stage made. The system of coordinates based on the new concept of "the nonrotating origin" is entered. Separate stages of reform are described in forewords and explanations to the Yearbooks on 20042008. Change of an ephemeris basis  replacement of the theory of EPM2004 by EPM2011/m created in IAA RAS, became the last stage of work.
Preparation of the AE2016 ephemerides is based on the following data:
 The fundamental ephemerides of the Sun, the Moon and major planets are calculated on the theory EPM2011/m developed at IAA RAS. This theory present the movement of these objects with accuracy enough for the theoretical and practical applications. The differences between the theories EPM2004 and DE405/LE405 in common use developed at the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA) are less on the order than the accuracy of the data published in AY for these bodies.
 In accordance with the IAU2000 resolution the parameters of the nutation in longitude and declination are calculated under the IAU2000_R06 nutation theory (Note of IERS Conventions Center, 16 June 2009).
 The account of precession was carried out in the Lieske method of parameterization with values of polynomial coefficients corresponding the new precession model P03 resulted in the report of Working group of IAU on precession and the ecliptic (2006).
 Calculation the sidereal time is made with use "the Siderial Angle" and new expression for the equation of equinoxes accepted by "IERS Convention (2003)", and P03 precession theory.
 The shift of average pole J2000.0 relative to the pole ICRS is taken into account at calculation of elements of the precessionnutation matrix.
 Calculing the stars ephemerides the fundamental catalog FK6 was used. The ephemerides of the stars which have not in this catalog are based on the catalog HIPPARCOS. Both catalogues are in ICRS. Calculating the corrections for orbital movement of double stars "Fourth catalog of orbits of visual binary stars" WH4 was used.
 The ephemeris data of the Yearbook are given in the classical concept of equinox. According to the recommendation XXIV GA IAU (resolution B1.7) the data connected with the new Celestial Intermediate Reference System (CIRS), and elements of a matrix of transition from ICRS to the celestial intermediate origin CIO and true equator of date are given.
All ephemeris data are calculated by means of the PS BOOKA edition package of a updated multipurpose program complex the ERA8 developed in IAA of RAS for the decision of problems of ephemeris astronomy. The updated program complex ERA8 (Pavlov D.A., Skripnichenko V.I. First results of trial operation of the crossplatform version of ERA system // Works IAA of RAS, SPb.: Science, 2014. Vyp.30. Page 3240) is included in program BOOKA system which is used for calculation of ephemerises for the IAA printing editions of RAS.
In "The Astronomical Yearbook for 2016" the calculation of the ephemeris data was carried out by following collaborators of the laboratory of astronomical yearbooks:
 the sidereal time  N.I. Glebova, M.L. Sveshnikov;
 the ephemerides of the geocentric coordinates of the Sun, the geocentric and heliocentric coordinates of the major planets, osculating elements of the planet orbits, the ephemerides of the position and velocity of the Earth in the barycentric reference system, the elements of the precession matrix and of the nutation matrix, the terms by reductions, the ephemerides for physical observations of the Moon, the phases of the Moon, perigee and apogee  N.I. Glebova;
 the ephemerides of the geocentric coordinates of the Moon, and coefficients of the Tchebyshov polynomials  N.I. Glebova, D.A. Pavlov;
 the seasons and precession values, the planetary configurations  N.I. Glebova;
 the data for the eclipses of the Sun and Moon, transit of Mercury across the Sun's disk  M.V. Lukashova;
 the data for the occultations of planets by the Moon  G.A. Kosmodamianskij;
 the ephemerides for physical observations of the Sun, planets and Saturn's rings  M.L. Sveshnikov;
 the times of rise and set of the Sun and Moon  M.V. Lukashova;
 mean places of stars at J2000.0, the table of the corrections for the orbital motion of stars  M.L. Sveshnikov, N.I. Glebova;
 the mean places of stars on epoch of the year, the apparent places of the tenday and circumpolar stars  N.I. Glebova;

the tables for altitudes and azimuths of Polaris and the tables for latitude determinations from observations of Polaris  M.L. Sveshnikov;

Earth rotation angle, Equation of the Origins, the CIP parameters, matrix elements for conversion from ICRS to CIO and true equator of date  N.I. Glebova, M.L. Sveshnikov;
The data control was carried out by N.I. Glebova, N.K. Omelyanchuk, and I.A. Lebedeva.
The explanation to the Yearbook is processed by N.I. Glebova, and M.L. Sveshnikov. The additional information on algorithms of calculation of ephemerides published in AY is given in "The Explanatory Supplement to "the Astronomical Yearbook" ("Transactions of IAA of RAS", 2004, vol.10). The examples in the Explanation were carried out by N.I. Glebova, G.A. Kosmodamianskij, M.V. Lukashova and M.L. Sveshnikov. The Explanation in the TEX was carried out by N.I. Glebova, M.V. Lukashova, and N.K. Omelyanchuk.
Since 1995 the publication of the "Astronomical Yearbook" was carried out by means of the softwares "SVITA" and "PUBLISHER" (G.A. Netsvetaeva. PUBLISHER  integrated environment for support astronomical yearbook issue, Communications of IAA of RAS. 2010, в„–В 187).
The layout of "The Astronomical Yearbook for 2016" was carried out by D.A. Ryzhkova.
Contents
Preface  3  
Seasons, some constants  5  
Sidereal time  6  
Ephemeris of the Sun  10  
Rectangular equatorial coordinates of the Sun  26  
Aberration, parallax, mean longitude of the Sun, obliquity of the ecliptic, nutation in obliquity  34  
Mean longitude of the Moon, mean elements of the Moon's orbit and equator  35  
Ephemeris of the Moon  36  
Right ascension, declination and geocentric distance of the Moon  52  
Coefficients of the Tchebyshov polynomials, the Moon  60  
Phases of the Moon, perigee and apogee  60  
Heliocentric coordinates of the planets  61  
Osculating elements of the internal planets  66  
Osculating elements of the outer planets  67  
Ephemeris of Mercury  68  
Ephemeris of Venus  76  
Ephemeris of Mars  84  
Ephemeris of Jupiter  92  
Ephemeris of Saturn  100  
Ephemeris of Uranus  108  
Ephemeris of Neptune  116  
Ephemeris of Pluto  124  
Position and velocity of the Earth  126  
Precession and nutation  127  
Terms of reductions at 0h Terrestrial Time  142  
Eclipses  150  
Planetary configurations  164  
Ephemeris for physical observations of the Sun  168  
Ephemeris for physical observations of the Moon  172  
Ephemeris for physical observations of Mercury  180  
Ephemeris for physical observations of Venus  188  
Ephemeris for physical observations of Mars  192  
Ephemeris for physical observations of Jupiter  200  
Physical data for the Sun, Moon, and major planets  207  
Rotational elements of the planets  207  
Ephemeris for physical observations of Saturn  208  
Saturn's rings  214  
Ephemeris for physical observations of Uranus  216  
Ephemeris for physical observations of Neptune  218  
Times of sunrise and sunset for latitudes from +30В° through +70В°  220  
Times of moonrise and moonset for latitudes from +30В° through +70В°  228  
Abbreviations of names of constellations  260  
Abbreviations of names of catalogues  260  
Mean places of stars (J2016.5)  261  
Mean places of circumpolar stars (J2016.5)  275  
Mean places of stars (ICRS)  276  
Mean places of circumpolar stars (ICRS)  290  
Terms of reductions for 0h of sidereal dynamical time  291  
Second order terms of reductions  299  
Apparent places of stars  303  
Apparent places of circumpolar stars  486  
Tables for latitude determinations from observations of Polaris  580  
Table for altitudes and azimuths of Polaris  585  
Earth rotation angle and Equation of the Origins  588  
Celestial Intermediate Reference System  592  
Matrix elements for conversion to CIRS  596  
Auxiliary tables  
I.  Julian dates  605 
IIa.  Conversion of mean time to sidereal time (with accuracy 0.01s)  610 
IIb.  Conversion of sidereal time to mean time (with accuracy 0.01s)  611 
IIIa.  Conversion of mean time to sidereal time (with accuracy 0.001s and 0.0001s)  612 
IIIb.  Conversion of sidereal time to mean time (with accuracy 0.001s and 0.0001s)  613 
IVa.  Conversion of minutes and seconds to fractions of degree and back  614 
IVb.  Conversion of decimal parts of degree to minutes and seconds and back  615 
V.  Conversion of arc to time  616 
VI.  Conversion of minutes and seconds to parts of hour  616 
VII.  Conversion of hours, minutes and seconds to parts of day  617 
VIIIa.  Elements of PE90 Earth's spheroid. Calculation geocentric coordinates of the Earth's surface points  618 
VIIIb.  Elements of IUGG Earth's spheroid. Calculation geocentric coordinates of the Earth's surface points  619 
IX.  Coefficients of Bessel's interpolation formula  620 
X.  Refraction (precision 1")  621 
XI.  Refraction (precision 0.1")  622 
Explanation to Astronomical Yearbook for 2016  
1.  General remarks  623 
2.  Interpolation  632 
3.  Sidereal time  635 
4.  Transition from One Time Measure System to Another  636 
5.  Fundamental ephemeris of the Sun, the Moon, and major planets  640 
6.  Ephemeris of the Sun: the equatorial and ecliptical coordinates  642 
7.  Rectangular equatorial coordinates of the Sun  646 
8.  Mean elements of Sun's orbit. Mean elements of Moon's orbit and equator  647 
9.  Ephemeris of the Moon. Coefficients of the Tchebyshov polynomials. Phases of the Moon, perigee, apogee  647 
10.  Heliocentric coordinates of planets. Osculating elements  649 
11.  Ephemerides of the major planets  650 
12.  Position and velocity of the Earth. precession and nutation  652 
13.  Terms of reductions  654 
14.  Eclipses  655 
15.  Planetary configurations and other astronomical phenomena  659 
16.  Ephemeris for physical observations of the Sun  659 
17.  Ephemeris for physical observations of the Moon  660 
18.  Planetocentric and planetographic coordinates of the Earth and the Sun  661 
19.  Ephemeris for physical observations of planets  663 
20.  Saturn's rings  664 
21.  Times of rise and set of the Sun and Moon  665 
22.  Mean places of stars  666 
23.  Apparent places of stars  668 
24.  Apparent places of circumpolar stars  676 
25.  Tables for latitude determinations from observations of Polaris  679 
26.  Earth rotation angle and Equation of the Origins  680 
27.  Parameters of the Celestial Intermediate Reference System  681 
28.  Matrix elements for conversion from ICRS to CIRS  681 
Index  683 